All of our carriages are constructed from hand picked clear Kiln-dried Ash or White oak. Our beams are laminated from eight,ten and twelve-quarter material using a biscuit jointing system along with waterproof glue and high pressure at a constant temperature. In gluing up the beams we reverse the grains to make our beams actually sturdier than an original with the grain all going in the same direction. Some companies use air-dried lumber that has cracks & checks that they have to fill with fiberglass or wood filler. Finishing:(1) We first treat all wood parts with a copper naphthenate solution as was done on original carriages of the period. (2)Second, we apply two coats of boiled linseed oil(heated). (3) Next, we use a 100% acrylic bonding primer specially formulated by the Porter Paint Co. of Louisville, Ky. that contains mild acids along with rust inhibitors and bonding agents that makes a superior intermediate coat between the copper naphthenate and the boiled linseed oil solution and the finish coats. Porter Paints is the only company in the paint industry to have this special primer available. (4) Then all wood receives a coat of oil base enamel. (5) We then use an industrial grade 100% acrylic paint finish that is guaranteed to out last any oil base paint two-to-one against chipping, peeling, color retention, and years of service before repainting is required. I’m a former paint company owner and according to all major paint companies and the National Paint Institute that does most of the independent testing of all paints agrees that 100% acrylic paint finishes are the superior way to treat outside surfaces. Hardware: All of our hardware that is cast is made from ductile iron with a sixty five thousand pound tensile strength. Other companies use gray iron (Cast Iron) that is brittle and only has strength of about twenty thousand pounds tensile strength. Other hardware that is not cast is hand fabricated from cold rolled steel. All hardware is ground and sanded smooth with the removal of all parting lines and imperfections due to the casting process. All hardware receives two coats of rust inhibitive primer and two coat of gloss black enamel.